Allotoca dugesii

Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
Allotoca dugesii
English Name: 
Bumblebee Allotoca
Mexican Name: 
Thiro
Original Description: 

  BEAN, T. H. (1887): Descriptions of five new Species of Fishes sent by Prof. A. Dugès from the Province of Guanajuato, Mexico. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 10: pp 370 - 375

Holotype: 

  Collection-number: United States National Museum, Cat. No. USNM-37831.

  The Holotype is an adult female of 60mm standard length (a second female of 64mm standard length had been deposited under the same collection-number, but the first in the description mentioned has to be named as the Holotype), collected by A. Dugès, collection-date unknown.

Terra typica: 

  The Holotype comes - following Bean -"probably from streams belonging to the Pacific slope of the Province Guanajuato".

Etymology: 

  The species is named after A. Dugès, who settled in Guanajuato, organized field trips to collect animals and sent this fish to Bean for description.

Synonyms: 

Fundulus dugèsii   Bean, 1887

Adinia dugesii   Jordan & Evermann, 1896

Zoogoneticus dugesii   Meek, 1902

Allotoca vivipara   de Buen, 1940

Distribution and ESU's: 

  The Bumblebee Allotoca is endemic to the federal states of  Michoacán, Jalisco and Guanajuato. The historical distribution encompassed the Río Grande de Santiago to just above Guadalajara, springs and its effluents along the Río Duero (lower Río Lerma affluent), headwaters of the Río Verde and some of its affluents like the ríos Lagos and San Pedro, northern tributaries of the Río Lerma (ríos Turbio, Guanajuato and Laja, Arroyo Grande), the endorheic Lago de Pátzcuaro basin, the lagunas de Zirahuén and Yuriría, and the endorheic Rio Grande de Morelia basin, including several springs and dams and the Lago Cuitzeo. There is one report from the E-coast of the Laguna San Marcos in Jalisco, about 12km W of the Chapala lake, and recent rumors about an Allotoca maculata/dugesii type fish from the Laguna de Sayula drainage near Atoyac, but these records need to be verified. The species has been extirpated from the Río Grande de Santiago and Rio Verde drainage through water pollution. A survey of Slaboch et al. revealed in 2008 a stock N of Poncitlán, but the habitat was polluted and fishless (except for introduced Gambusia sp.) on a survey of Köck et al. in 2016. The last two known habitats of the species N of the Río Lerma were surveyed by Köck et al. in 2017. The habitat S of Irapuato (close to the Río Guanajuato) has altered into a muddy, stinky channel without any fish and the habitat E of Corralejo de Hidalgo (Río Turbio) was populated only with Guppys (Poecilia reticulata). A recently (before 2005) discovered stock close to the town of Etúcuaro is the only one known from the Río Duero subpopulation being extant, the subpopulation from the Laguna de Zirahuén has been extirpated by Black Bass. The only strongholds of the species seem to be the spring near the old mill in Chapultepec (Lago de Pátzcuaro drainage) and some springs in the Río Grande de Morelia system. Water pollution and competition through non-native fish eliminated the species from the Laguna de Yuriría and the Lago de Pátzcuaro. Eight subpopulations according to separate drainages can be distinguished: The Río Grande de Morelia subpopulation, the Lago de Pátzcuaro subpopulation, the lagunas de Zirahuén and Yuriría subpopulations, the Middle Río Lerma subpopulation (type subpopulation), the Río Duero subpopulation, the Lago de Chapala/Río Grande de Santiago subpopulation and the Río Verde subpopulation. Samplings throughout the last two decades suggest, that many of these subpopulations have disappeared and probably only the Río Grande de Morelia, the Lago de Pátzcuaro and the Río Duero subpopulations are still extant. The underlined names are the ones officially used by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; nevertheless, other ones might be more often in use or better known and therefore prefered.

 

  ESU ist short for Evolutionarily Significant Unit.  Each unit expresses an isolated population with different genetic characteristics within one species.  ESU's can be defined by Molecular genetics, Morphology and/or Zoogeography and help in indicating different phylogenetic lineages within a species. The abbreviation for an ESU is composed of three letters of the genus, followed by the first two letters of the species name and an ongoing number in each species.

 

  Allotoca dugesii is distributed over a wide range and so we are able to distinguish several ESU's. The first one is Altdu1 and encompasses fish from the Río Duero west including the Lago de Chapala and the ríos Santiago and Verde. Altdu2 is in use for populations north of the middle Río Lerma, especially the ríos Turbio and Guanajuato. The fish from the Lago de Cuitzoe basin up to the Lago de Yuriria are named Altdu3. The fourth and last ESU, Altdu4, encompasses fish from the Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén lakes.

 

  Maximum Extent of Occurence of Allotoca dugesii:

Maximum EOO of Allotoca dugesii

Status : 

  International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): not assessed

 

  Conservation status and population trends of Mexican Goodeids (Lyons, 2011): endangered/declining – The widest ranging of the Allotoca species, historically known from much of the middle and lower Lerma and upper Santiago river basins on the Pacific slope and the endorheic Lake Pátzcuaro, Lake Zirahuén, and Lake Cuitzeo/Grande de Morelia River basins (Miller et al. 2005). Currently, the species is known from only six locations. A new population was recently discovered in a spring along the Duero River in the Lerma River basin near the town of Etúcuaro, but it is very small. Recent surveys have documented the species disappearance from the Santiago and Zirahuén basins where it was once widespread and common. Strongholds are the Molino de Chapultepec Springs and the La Maiza Springs in the Cuitzeo/Grande de Morelia basin near the city of Morelia. Domínguez-Domínguez et al. (2002) published observations on larval feeding of this species that will useful in the maintenance of captive populations.

 

  NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010: Categoría de riesgo (Category of risk): P - En Peligro de Extinción (in danger of extinction)

Habitat: 

  Allotoca dugesii lives in lakes, ponds and streams and prefers in general depths of less than 1.3m. It can be found over clay, mud, sand, gravel and rocks. Vegetation can usually be found, but is absent sometimes. When vegetation is present, it consists of Nasturtium, Ceratophyllum, Potamogeton, Eichhornia and green algae. The currents are none to moderate, but sometimes strong, too. The water is either clear to murky or muddy.

 Molino de Chapultepec 1

Molino de Chapultepec 2

Molino de Chapultepec 3

Molino de Chapultepec 4

 

Biology: 

  Meek reported young born in the last week of May (1904). A 13mm individual was taken on 27 February (water temperature 13°C) near Presa Coplaita, northwest of Guadalajara, which indicates that the reproduction may occur over a much longer period. Females were pregnant with eyed embryos on 4 March (water temperature 10°C) near Undameo in the Río Morelia basin.

Diet: 

   The teeth are slender conical, in a double row, of which the outer is enlarged and firmly attached. Combined with observations in captivity, this leads to the assumption of a more carnivorous diet, probably hunting small water invertebrates and insects from the water surface.

Size: 
The maximum known SL is 63mm (Miller et al, 2005).
Colouration: 

  Allotoca dugesii is a species with a remarkable sexual dichromatism and dimorphism. Both sexes have the upper body olive (intermingled with silver) and the lower body silvery. The males have a dark midline from the corner of the eye to the base of the caudal fin. Females have this line interrupted partially. The base of the fins can exhibit yellow or orange colouration. Females show four to eleven dark vertical stripes with blue areas along the flanks. Bean described these stripes (in spirits) as "five or six dusky bands, the widest somewhat greater than the length of the eye. On of these bands is placed under the anterior half of the dorsal". The operculum is silvery coloured.

  At least in one population (Rancho el Molino) individuals can show dark black blotches on the sides, similar to blotches seen in Skiffia multipunctata, but not so prominent.

Remarks: 

  Allotoca dugesii is the species with the widest distribution among the genus Allotocabut according to its sneaking life, little is known about its life-history. However, it seemed to have disappeared from more than 50% of its historically known distribution range, finding refuges in the Lago de Cuitzeo basin, the Patzcuaro basin and few locations nearby north of the Lago de Cuitzeo. Despite of this, in 2010, Czech and Slovakian hobbyists have been successful in sampling fish in the Río Santiago, so this species might still be present in some areas, where it has been thought of having disappeared.

 

  Though the resemblance of Allotoca maculata, Allotoca goslinei is recognized as the nearest relative by several authors and according to results of phylogenetically researches.

 

  In the endorheic basin of Lago de Pátzcuaro, this species lives sympatric with Allotoca diazi.

 

  Fernando de Buen described in 1940 Allotoca vivipara from the Lago de Pátzcuaro. Smith and Miller examined the holotype and additonal material in 1987 but found no significant differences between these fish and Allotoca dugesii. Therefore, they agreed with the opinion of Aurelio Solórzano (pers. comm. to Miller in 1967) that Allotoca vivipara has to be seen as a synonym of Allotoca dugesii.

Husbandry: 
  Looking on the biotopes of Allotoca dugesii, they suggest the species may prefer a habitat with moderate to swift current, structured with gravel, rocks, roots, branches, fallen leaves and river bank vegetation. Fry is eaten in most of the cases, but it may depend on the quantity and quality of food and on the number of space to hide. When several different stages of juveniles occur, fry may be neglected, so it makes sense to add separate brought up fry to the group with a size of 1.5 or 2cm to provide these stages and get a flock breeding colony.

 

 The recommended tank size is at least 100 liters, bigger ones with a generous base and little height (25cm are enough) are better for sure. With rocks and vegetation in the corners and backsinde of the tank well structured tanks combined with some roots and/ or wood seem to do best with this species. The current should be moderate or swift. 

 

 In the wild, the species seem to feed from small or middle - sized invertebrates like bloodworms or insect larvae, so feeding with similar food, Daphnia, Mysis and other food from animalistic sources will be best for this predatory fish.   

 

 Concerning water quality, this species is in need of greater water changes (60 - 80% every week) like most of the Goodeids, especially river and spring inhabiting species, so an automatic water changing system can be helpful. Otherwise, in combination with constant temperatures higher than 24°C, fish may get sick, lose resistance against diseases and age too fast. So for keeping the strain healthy and strong, give the fish a rest during winter time with temperatures lower than 20°C for 2 or 3 months so they stop producing fry. Allotoca species can be kept down to temperatures of 15 or 16°C without problems for months, some species even lower. In spring, when the temperature slowly increases, they will start spawning at 20 or 21°C and won't stop until it gets colder again or when it gets too warm (25°C?).

 

 This species is doing very well when is kept in the open from spring to fall, starting when the temperature exceeds 15°C water temperature and cold periods are no longer expected. During the warm summer, reproduction will stop and may occur again in fall. Bring the fish in before the temperature goes below 10°C water temperature and keep them cool for the first days, then slowly raise the temperature but try to stay below 20°C over the winter time.

 

Locations