Zoogoneticus purhepechus

Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Zoogoneticus purhepechus
Original Description: 

  DOMÍNGUEZ-DOMÌNGUEZ, O., PÉREZ-RODRÍGUEZ, R. & I. DOADRIO (2008): Morphological and genetic comparative analyses of populations of Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae) from Central Mexico, with description of a new species. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 79: pp 373 - 383

Etymology: 

  This species is named for the indigenous ethnic group "Purhepecha" that lives in a part of the distribution range of this species, including the type locality. This people was very powerful in former times, but lives in the shadow nowadays. It was called "Michihuáquè" in Náhuatl, which means: those, who have fish. The name Michoacán for the federal state has the same origin and means: land of those who have fish (michin = fish; hua = those, who have or owner; can = land)

Holotype: 

  Collection-number: Colección de Peces de la Universidad Michoacana, Cat. No. CPUM-1509.

  The Holotype is a mature male of 34.12mm standard length, collected by L. Couvreur, J. de Moree, K. de Jong, J. C. Merino and L. Escalera-Vázquez, November 2002.

English Name: 
La Luz Splitfin
Mexican Name: 
Picote La Luz
Synonyms: 

Platypoecilus quitzeoensis     Bean, 1898 (partially)

Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis    Meek, 1902 (partially)

Karyotype: 

  The Karyotype describes the number and appearance of chromosomes during the phase of condensation, classified by the position of the centromere (Levan et al., 1964).

The following abbreviations are employed:

 

M = large metacentric chromsome (a result of Robertsonian fusion)

m = small metacentric chromsome (centromere at medium position)

sm = submetacentric chromsome (centromere at submedian position)

smst = submetacentric-subtelocentric chromosome (continous series)

st = subtelocentric chromosome (centromere at subterminal region)

stt = subtelocentric-acrocentric chromosome (continous series)

t = acrocentric chromosome (centromere at terminal region)

 

The Karyotype of Zoogoneticus purhepechus has not been ascertained.

Size: 
The maximum known SL is 57mm.
Terra typica: 

  The Holotype was collected in the La Luz-spring (lower Río Lerma-drainage), Zamora de Hidalgo, Michoacán.

Status after IUCN: 

  not assessed

Status following other sources: 

  Status: Endangered

  Population development: Stable since 2000

Distribution and ESU's: 

  This species inhabits the Pacific Slope and can be found in the basins of the ríos Ameca and Lerma - Grande de Santiago (above El Salto de Juanacatlán), including the Lago de Chapala and the endorheic lagunas Atotonilco and San Marcos. The Lago de Unión de Tula from the Río Armería, former in the distribution area of this species, is dry now. This species is inhabitating the states Guanajuato, Jalisco and Michoacán.

 

  ESU ist short for Evolutionarily Significant Unit.  Each unit expresses an isolated population with different genetic characteristics within one species.  ESU's can be defined by Molecular genetics, Morphology and/or Zoogeography and help in indicating different phylogenetic lineages within a species.  The abbreviation for an ESU is composed of the first 3 letters of the genus, followed by the first 2 letters of the species name and an ongoing number in each species.

 

  In Zoogoneticus purhepechus, Molecular genetics give us the possibility to distinguish three ESU's (reference: Domínguez-Domínguez et al., 2008 and unpublished data): The first unit - Zoopu1 - encompasses populations of the Río Lerma basin, means from the Laguna Los Negritos (La Alberca), the lagos Chapala, Jaripo, La Plantanera and Camécuaro, the springs and presas La Luz, Cupatziro and Orandino and the ríos Celio, Jaripo and Duero. This ESU has to be threated as endangered.

  The second unit - Zoopu2 - is distributed west of Zoopu1, especially in the ríos Ameca, Veneros, the manantial Almoloya, the Lago Magdalena and finally in the Rio Teuchitlán. The same status goes with this ESU: Endangered.

  The third and last ESU, Zoopu3 is distributed in the Sayula valley: Tanque El Molino at Cuyacapán. It was thought to be extinct, but was rediscovered on a survey of the GWG n 2016. The status for this population is Critically endangered.

Habitat: 

  Zoogoneticus purhepechus can be found in lakes, streams, ponds, canals and ditches over substrates of clay, silt, mud, sand, gravel, decayed organic matter and rocks. It prefers clear to muddy water with currents none to moderate and can be seen in depths of less than 1m, usually less than 0.6m, pefering areas with dense vegetation including green algae, Eichhornia, Scirpus, Potamogeton, Nasturtium, Chara and Lemna.

 

Río Teuchitlán IRío Teuchitlán II

 

Río Teuchitlán IIIRío Teuchitlán IV

 

Balneario El Rincón, Río Teuchitlán IBalneario El Rincón, Río Teuchitlán II

 

Balneario Al Moloya IBalneario Al Moloya II

 

Manantial en La Estancia de Ayones IManantial en La Estancia de Ayones II

 

Lago de Camécuaro ILago de Camécuaro II

 

Lago de Camécuaro IIILago de Camécuaro IV

 

Manantial La Luz IManantial La Luz II

 

Manantial La Luz IIIManantial La Luz IV

 

Lago de Chapala ILago de Chapala II

 

Los Negritos ILos Negritos II

Colouration: 

  Both sexes exhibit a light brown colouration, with dark brown and moderately large spots on the posterior part of the body, starting at the base of the caudal fin. In the anterior part of the body, a mottling pattern of small spots can be distinguished at the top of the ventral region. They show a pair of dark brown spots laterally aligned at the base of the caudal peduncle, in the region of the hypural plate. In males, during the breeding season, these spots could not be distinguished. The ventral region lacks spots. Adult males are slightly darker than females and may show a slightly bluish or greenish hue on the lateral side of the body and some scales can produce iridescence. The males from the type locality show an intense red band at the end of the pelvic and dorsal fins. In specimens from other localities, this band may be an intense orange.

Biology: 

  Captures of young from the closely related Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis indicate a reproduction period from January to April. Kingston (1979) noted pregnant females and fish in all sizes of Zoogoneticus purhepechus in April at the Lago de Camécuaro in Jalisco.

 

  In the manantial La Luz and in the Lago de Camécuaro, Köck, Davies, Radax, Hunter and Betancourt collected Zoogoneticus purhepechus in November 2014. In the Lago de Camécuaro, the species was hiding between Taxodium roots similar to the sister species (Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis) in Zacapu, whereas the same species was hiding between rocks and reed at La Luz. In all habitats, different stages of juvenile fish as well as adult fish and even gravid females could have been collected easily with hand nets.

 

  Slaboch et al. found this species in 2010 mainly in irrigation channels and small ditches.

Diet: 

  The teeth are conical and the gut is short. Combined with a small mouth, this species is definitely a predator, picking small invertebrates like crustaceans and insect larvae.

Remarks: 

  Although this species is widely distributed in different drainages along the occidental part of Central México, there has been observed a reduction in its distribution of almost 75% of the historical occurence points (Domínguez 2008). The most common alterations are the introduction of exotic species, dessication and water pollution. Following Domínguez, this species is in threat of being extinct.

 

  In 2011, L. Boto, O. Domínguez and I. Doadrio studied the relationship within Zoogoneticus purhepechus. The results suggest a very close kin relation for the populations from the lower Río Lerma basin and Lake Chapala area on one hand, and for the populations from the upper Río Armería and lakes Moloya and Magdalena on the other. This genetic differences find expression in 2 clear defined lineages within this species.

 

  Optically, the two species quitzeoensis and purhepechus are hardly to distinguish. The main morphological difference is the longer dorsal fin of purhepechus (13 or 14 rays to 11 till 13 in quitzeoensis), and thereof resulting divergent distances from snout to dorsal fin and dorsal fin to caudal fin. Genetically, the differences in the cytochrome b gene range between 3 and 3.8%, which is a higher value than it can be found between some other species (0.6 - 1.7% between Skiffia francesae and multipunctata e.g.) -  and even more than between man and chimpanzee regarding the same gene (3%), so both species are well defined and the results are statistically strong supported.

Husbandry: 

  Looking on the habitats of Zoogoneticus purhepechus, they suggest the species may prefer dense vegetation and roots (in the aquarium even dense artificial staff) to hide. In the wild, there was little or none current to observe in the biotops, so it won't be necessary in the aquarium as well. In the aquarium, the fish often hide deep in the shelter, but courting and impressing as well as fighting males can often be seen in the open water. Fry is eaten in some cases, in others not, so it may depend on the quantity and quality of food and on the number of space to hide. When several different stages of juveniles occur, fry is often neglected, so it makes sense to add separate brought up fry to the group with a size of 1.5 or 2cm to provide these stages and get a flock breeding colony.

 

  The recommended tank size is at least 80 liters, bigger ones are better for sure. Dense vegetation combined with many roots and wood and free space areas for the males to impose and fight make sense. The current should be low.

 

  In the wild, the species seem to feed from small invertebrates. Zoogoneticus purhepechus was observed at la Mintzita spring looking for small sources of food between rocks (Köck, 2014) and picking up small Copepods or organic matter. In the aquarium, the food should be composed of different small frozen or freeze dried invertebrates (Daphnia, Bloodworms, Artemia), small livefood (e.g. Nauplia, Cyclops, Daphnia) and good flake food or tablets respectively granulat food.

 

  In some cases, Zoogoneticus purhepechus are attacking tales of other fish, not only Guppys but also Goodeids (e.g. Ameca splendens), whereas Skiffia - species have not been attacked by the same fish (pers. obs. Köck). However, this species does better in its own tank.

 

  Concerning water quality, this species is in need of greater water changes (60 - 80% every week), so an automatic water changing system can be helpful. Otherwise, in combination with constant temperatures higher than 24°C, fish may get sick, lose resistance against diseases and burn themselves out. So, mainly for keeping the strain healthy and strong, give the fish a rest during winter time with temperatures lower than 20°C for 2 or 3 months so they stop producing fry. In spring, when the temperature slowly increases, they will start spawning at 20 or 21°C and won't stop until it gets colder again or gets too warm (25°C?).

 

  This species does very well when is kept in the open from spring to fall, starting when the temperature exceeds 15°C water temperature and cold periods are no longer expected. During the warm summer, reproduction will stop and may occur again in fall. Bring the fish in before the temperature goes below 10°C water temperature and keep them cool for the first days, then slowly raise the temperature but try to stay below 20°C over the winter time.

Locations