Goodea atripinnis (including gracilis and luitpoldi)

Goodea atripinnis
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Goodea atripinnis
English Name: 
Blackfin Goodea
Mexican Name: 
Tiro
Original Description: 

  JORDAN, D. S. (1880): Notes on a collection of fishes obtained in the streams of Guanajuato and in Chapala Lake, Mexico, by Prof. A. Duges. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 2, for 1879: pp 298 - 301

Holotype: 

   The whole collection has got the Collection-number: United States National Museum, Cat. No. USNM-23137. The fish have been obtained by A. Dugès and forwarded to the Smithsonian institute.  There is no Holotype deposited.

Terra typica: 

  The types have been collected near the town of León in the state of Guanajuato. Bean, also in 1880, mentioned this species, and also specimens collected by Dugès, with the locality given as a salt lake in the middle of a little volcanic plain in Valle de Santiago, Guanajuato. Eventually, these might be the same specimens.

Etymology: 

  The species name is derived from the Latin and means "black fins". This name refers to the unpaired black find in the female gender. 

Synonyms: 

Goodea sp.   Bean, 1880

Characodon atripinnis   Bean, 1888

Characodon variatus   Woolman, 1894 (misidentification)

Characodon luitpoldi   von Bayern, 1894

Xenendum caliente   Jordan & Snyder, 1900

Xenendum xaliscone   Jordan & Snyder, 1900

Xenendum luitpoldi   Jordan & Evermann, 1900

Goodea caliente   Meek, 1902

Goodea luitpoldi   Meek, 1902

Goodea calientis   Regan, 1907

Goodea gracilis   Turner, 1937 (nomen nudum)

Goodea gracilis   Hubbs & Turner, 1939

Goodea atripinnis calientis   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis atripinnis   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis martini   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis luitpoldii   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis subsp.   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis xaliscone   de Buen, 1947

 

Distribution and ESU's: 

  The Blackfin Goodea is native to nine Mexican federal states and introduced to two more (Durango and the Distrito Federal). The distribution range is the largest of all Goodeid species extending from Hidalgo in the E to Nayarit in the W spanning a distance of about 600km beeline and from Michoacán in the S to Zacatecas in the N, over approximately 350km beeline. It was historically known from the lower sections of the Upper (about Maravatio) and from the Middle Río Lerma basin, there including all affluents, especially the bigger rivers: ríos Laja, Guanajuato and Turbio, from the Río Angulo drainage including the Lago Zacapú, from the Lower Río Lerma drainage including the Río Duero and other smaller affluents, from the ríos Verde (Jalisco, not San Luis Potosí), Juchipila and Bolaños (Río Grande de Santiago affluents) drainages, and from the Upper Río Grande de Santiago/ Laguna Chapala drainage. Furthermore it is known from the Upper Río Ameca drainage, the endorheic lagunas San Marcos, de Sayula, de Zapotlán, Zacoalcos and Atotonilco, from headwaters of the Río Ayuquila, Río Armería drainage and from headwaters of the ríos Santa María and Moctezuma, Río Pánuco drainage, including the endorheic Río Venados (Río Metztitlán) drainage in Hidalgo. Additionally the species occurs in the endorheic Río Grande de Morelia (including the Lago Cuitzeo), Laguna Yuriría, Lago de Pátzcuaro and lagunas de Zirahuén and Magdalena basins. It even reaches the ríos Grande and Turundeo headwaters in the Río Balsas drainage and is one of very few Goodeid species reaching the ríos Huicicila and Mololoa drainages in Nayarit, the last one being an affluent of the Río Grande de Santiago just before it reaches the Pacific. The underlined names are the ones officially used by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; nevertheless, other ones might be more often in use or better known and therefore prefered. All in all, 25 subpopulations are distinguished:

1. Upper Río Lerma subpopulation (including the Río Cachiví near Maravatio de Ocampo)

2. Middle Río Lerma subpopulation (type subpopulation; including the ríos Laja, Guanajuato, Turbio)

3. Laguna Yuriría subpopulation

4. Río Angulo subpopulation(including the Lago Zacapú)

5. Lower Río Lerma subpopulation (including the Río Duero)

6. Upper Río Grande de Santiago/ Laguna Chapala subpopulation

7. Río Verde subpopulation

8. Río Juchipila subpopulation

9. Río Bolaños subpopulation

10. Río Mololoa subpopulation (in Tepic, lower Río Grande de Santiago affluent)

11. Río Huicicila subpopulation (including the Arroyo Compostela)

12. Laguna Magdalena subpopulation

13. Upper Río Ameca subpopulation (including the Río Teuchitlán)

14. Upper Río Ayuquila subpopulation (Río Armería drainage)

15. Lagunas Atotonilco/San Marcos subpopulation

16. Laguna de Sayula subpopulation

17. Laguna de Zapotlán subpopulation

18. Río Santa María subpopulation

19. Río Moctezuma subpopulation

20. Río Venados (Río Metztitlán) subpopulation

21. Río Grande subpopulation (Cotija)

22. Río Turundeo subpopulation (around Ciudad Hidalgo)

23. Río Gande de Morelia subpopulation (including the Lago Cutzeo and the Presa Cointzio)

24. Lago de Pátzcuaro subpopulation

25. Laguna de Zirahuén subpopulation

 

    ESU ist short for Evolutionarily Significant Unit. Each unit expresses an isolated population with different genetic characteristics within one species.  ESU's can be defined by Molecular genetics, Morphology and/or Zoogeography and help in indicating different phylogenetic lineages within a species. The abbreviation for an ESU is composed of the first 3 letters of the genus, followed by the first 2 letters of the species name and an ongoing number in each species.

 

  Goodea atripinnis is a nightmare for taxonomists. There are so many different types of Goodea, that actually only two ESU's are distinguished, though the number of forms are many. Gooat1 is in use for all the fish west of the Río Pánuco system whereas Gooat2 for the ones from the Río Pánuco system, that are by some scientists named Goodea gracilis.

 

  Maximum Extent of Occurence of Goodea atripinnis:

Maximum EOO of Goodea atripinnis

Status : 

  International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): low concern

 

  Conservation status and population trends of Mexican Goodeids (Lyons, 2011): least Concern/declining – This species has the largest distribution of any goodeid species. Its native range includes the Lerma, upper Santiago (including Lake Chapala), upper Ameca, upper Armería, and upper Balsas river basins on the Pacific slope, the endorheic Lake Zirahuén, Lake Pátzcuaro, and Lake Cuitzeo/Grande de Morelia River basins in central Mexico, and the upper Pánuco River basin on the Atlantic slope. Many years ago it invaded and became established in the endorheic Valley of Mexico, and an introduced population was recently discovered in the upper Mezquital River basin within the range of Characodon near Durango (Michael Tobler, personal communication). Some early authors (e.g., Meek 1904; Mendoza 1962) considered the Lake Pátzcuaro population a different species, G. luitpoldi, but recent genetic and morphological analyses indicate that this population is not distinct from G. atripinnis (Doadrio and Domínguez-Dominguez 2004; Webb et al. 2004; Clyde Barbour, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA, personal communication; Kyle Piller, personal communication). Other authors consider the Pánuco River basin populations a distinct species, G. gracilis (e.g., Doadrio and Dominguez-Domínguez 2004; Domínguez-Domínguez et al. 2005b). Although there are minor genetic and morphological differences between Pánuco River basin populations and other Goodea populations, I do not consider them large enough to warrant recognition of G. gracilis as a separate species.

Goodea atripinnis remains common in many areas and is probably still the most abundant goodeid species overall, but its distribution and abundance have steadily declined over the last 25 years (Lyons et al. 1998; Soto-Galera 1999; Domínguez-Domínguez et al. 2005b; Mercado-Silva et al. 2006). Historically the species supported commercial fisheries in the larger lakes where it occurred, but in recent years it has been eliminated from Lake Zirahuén, reduced to a small remnant population in Lake Pátzcuaro, and greatly decreased in number in Lake Chapala and Lake Cuitzeo, largely owing to predation by and competition with non-native fish species. Only a handful of populations persist in the upper Pánuco River basin, primarily because of water diversions and groundwater pumping, which have eliminated habitat. Pollution and habitat modifications have devastated populations in many areas of the Lerma and upper Santiago basins.

 

  NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010: no categoría de riesgo (no category of risk)

Habitat: 

  The habitats are very versatile, including lakes, ponds, streams, springs and outflows. It goes down to 1.7m, but prefers usually depths of less than 0.5m. The water may be clear, turbid or muddy and currents are none to sometimes moderatly strong. Different substrates like mud, clay, sand, gravel and rocks occur. The vegetation is rarely sparse, typical are green algae plus Chara, water hyacinths, Potamogeton, Lemna and Nasturtium.

 

Rio Grande de Santiago IRio Grande de Santiago II

 

Los Negritos ILos Negritos II

 

Laguna Zacapu ILaguna Zacapu II

 

Laguna Zacapu IIILaguna Zacapu IV

 

Río Teuchitlán IRío Teuchitlán II

 

Río Teuchitlán IIIRío Teuchitlán IV

 

Balneario El Rincón, Río Teuchitlán IBalneario El Rincón, Río Teuchitlán II

 

Manantial en La Estancia de Ayones IManantial en La Estancia de Ayones II

 

Manantial La Luz IManantial La Luz II

 

Manantial La Luz IIIManantial La Luz IV

 

Lago de Chapala ILago de Chapala II

 

Manantial La Mintzita IManantial La Mintzita II

 

Manantial La Mintzita IIIManantial La Mintzita IV

Irrigation channel near Ciudad Hidalgo IIrrigation channel near Ciudad Hidalgo II

Pond near Huingo IPond near Huingo II

Spring in Quencio ISpring in Quencio II

 

  Jesus Maria dam I     Jesus Maria dam II

Biology: 

  Following Miller, young occur from the end of January to the middle of July, indicating a long reproductive period. On the other hand, Mendoza (1962) found young in Pátzcuaro lake from June to August, indicating just one brood per year for at least this lake. The capture of young indicates, that the reproduction in the Río Panuco basin is from midwinter to late spring (early February to May or June) and may extend throughout autumn (17mm young taken on 23 November). Goodea atripinnis is a prolific fish; a very large female (149mm SL) contained 167 (!) embryos ready for birth.   These fish generally swim from midwater to bottom, feeding during the day on aufwuchs. It also forms aggregates of stationary fish just off the bottom (Kingston, 1979). 

Diet: 

  The gut is elongate (about 230% of the standard length). The mouth is dorsally oriented, the marginal teeth of premaxillary and dentary are arranged in two rows of bicuspid teeth, followed by a set of small unicuspid teeth. This species is definitely herbivorous, feeding mainly on filamentous green algae, water plants, microcrustacea and mollusca. Jordan in his orginial description described the intestinal canal as "considerably convoluted and filled with mud."

Size: 
The maximum known SL is about 200mm.
Colouration: 

  Jordan described the colour of fish in spirit as "bluish above, sides nearly plain, with a silvery streak along each series of scales. Vertical fins obscurely marked, each of them chiefly black, especially on the distal half."

  Hieronimus (1995) distinguishes between three different types of colouration: The first type is totally silvery in both sexes without any black fins, the second type greenish-yellow with males with green flanks. The belly may be yellow and females display black unpaired fins when being at ease, whereas the males show yellow fins. The third type displays a strong, dark, lateral band in both sexes with also black unpaired fins in the female gender when feeling comfortable.

  Following him, all three types may be found at one location with different intermediate stages.

Remarks: 

  Jordan wrote in his description in 1880 about the dentition: "both jaws with a series of rather slender, tricuspid teeth". The same D. S. Jordan & J. O. Snyder, 20 years later, collected fish of the same species in the Río Verde with - this time correctly identified- bicuspid teeth. Due to Jordans wrongly given definition of tricuspid teeth in the description of Goodea atripinnis (and in his definition of the genus Goodea), both erected a new genus with bicuspid teeth, Xenendum, and described this species new, Xenendum caliente. Meek in 1902 changed the name of this species in Goodea caliente, synonymized Xenendum with Goodea but did not recognize both species as one.  

 

  Princess Therese von Bayern described in 1894 (with the help of Franz Steindachner) the species Characodon luitpoldi (later named Goodea luitpoldii) from Lago de Pátzcuaro. The differences to atripinnis should be mainly the size (with more scale rows respectively) and constantly smaller scales. Following the scientific literature, luitpoldii should be the Goodea - representative of the bigger lakes (like Chapala, Zacoalcos and Pátzcuaro), whereas atripinnis should inhabit streams and smaller lakes. It is not ultimatively cleared if Goodea luitpoldii is a valid species - as well as gracilis -  but in contrast to this species, it is mostly not treated as valid by most of the authors and scientists, so we decided to place luitpoldii in the synonymy of atripinnis.

 

  In 1900, when Jordan and Snyder erected the genus Xenendum, they described besides the species caliente a second species: Xenendum xaliscone from Lago de Chapala. Already 2 years later, Meek synonymized both species rightly.

 

  At one location can be found different types of colouration, but also in body shape, means long and slender individuals as well as relatively short and high-backed ones. This fact makes it impossible to distinguish any subspecies according to colour patterns or body shapes.

 

  In 1924 described C. Hubbs the species Goodea captiva after some specimens from Jesus Maria, bottled together with specimens of atripinnis and thought to belong to this species. Though he thought that both species are closely related, in 1937, together with C. L. Turner, he transfered this species into a new genus: Xenoophorus. Some authors believe, that within the Chapalichthyini, the closest relative of Goodea can be found within the genus Xenoophorus.

 

  In 1947 Fernando de Buen downgraded all described species to subspecies label and described a new one from the Río Grande de Morelia: Goodea atripinnis martini. This population resembles more the atripinnis-type than the luitpoldii-type and is placed within the synonymy of atripinnis meanwhile.

 

  In 2010, few specimens of the genus Goodea have been found in the Río Metztitlán in the state of Hidalgo, that waters into the Lago Metztitlán. Comparing measures from these five individuals show intermediate results between the two accepted species gracilis and atripinnis, so the final position of this population isn't sure at all. However, following distribution patterns, it should rather belong to Goodea gracilis and is together with the population of Girardinichthys viviparus from the Lago Tecocomulco one of the most eastern distributed populations of Goodeids.

 

  In contrast to all other Goodeids, Goodea atripinnis is high tolerant of highly degraded environments and has got a big range of distribution, the absolutely biggest among Goodeids with respect to the other species. It can be found from tributaries of the ríos Ayuquila and Armería in the west until Mexico City meanwhile (introduced) in the east. It can be found in waters of Durango (introduced) in the north as well as in tributaries of the Río Balsas in the south. The distribution range covers nearly the whole range of all known species of Goodeids in Mexico! 

 

  Goodea atripinnis belongs to few Goodeids used for human consumption. Other sometimes eaten species are Alloophorus robustus and Chapalichthys encaustus.