Goodea atripinnis (including gracilis and luitpoldii)

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Goodea atripinnis
English Name: 
Blackfin Goodea
Mexican Name: 
Tiro
Original Description: 

  JORDAN, D. S. (1880): Notes on a collection of fishes obtained in the streams of Guanajuato and in Chapala Lake, Mexico, by Prof. A. Duges. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 2, for 1879: pp 298-301

Holotype: 

  Collection-number: United States National Museum, Cat. No. USNM-23137.

  David S. Jordan did neither deposit a Holotype nor did he commit a collection date to paper. The species is described from numerous specimens, he received from Alberto Dugès, who collected them at several locations in Guanajuato. The four largest ones (of about 10mm total length) Dugès obtained from the area of León, another locality is given with a salty lake on a volcanic plain near Valle de Santiago. Typical for this species should be tricuspid teeth in a single row, which was a mistake and led to confusion in the decades after (see therefore the chapter "Remarks"). Concerning information about the Holotypes of other, now with atripinnis synonymized species, except for figures, go also to this chaper.

  Drawing of one of the types of Goodea atripinnis:

Type of Goodea atripinnis

  Painting of one of the types of Characodon luitpoldii:

Type of Characodon luitpoldii

  Drawing of the Holotype of Xenendum caliente

Holotype of Xenendum caliente 

  Drawing of the Holotype of Xenendum xaliscone:

Holotype of Xenendum xaliscone 

  Photo of the Holotype of Goodea gracilis:

Holotype of Goodea gracilis

Terra typica: 

  The types were partly collected near the town of León in the state of Guanajuato, but also at other locations. Tarleton Bean (1880) mentioned specimens of Goodea sp. having been collected by Dugès in a salt lake in the middle of a little volcanic plain in Valle de Santiago, Guanajuato. These were also mentioned together with those from León by Jordan and Evermann in 1896.

Etymology: 

  The species name is derived from the Latin with the adjective "ater", black and "pinna", the fin. The epithet means therefore "with black fins". His preserved specimens showed black unpaired fins and this character attracted Jordans attention. 

Synonyms: 

Goodea sp.   Bean, 1880

Characodon atripinnis   Bean, 1888

Characodon variatus   Woolman, 1894 (misidentification)

Characodon luitpoldii   von Bayern and Steindachner, 1894

Xenendum caliente   Jordan & Snyder, 1900

Xenendum xaliscone   Jordan & Snyder, 1900

Xenendum luitpoldii   Jordan & Evermann, 1900

Goodea caliente   Meek, 1902

Goodea luitpoldii   Meek, 1902

Goodea calientis   Regan, 1907

Goodea gracilis   Turner, 1937 (nomen nudum)

Goodea gracilis   Hubbs & Turner, 1939

Goodea atripinnis calientis   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis atripinnis   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis martini   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis luitpoldii   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis subsp.   de Buen, 1947

Goodea atripinnis xaliscone   de Buen, 1947

Distribution and ESU's: 

  The Blackfin Goodea is native to nine Mexican federal states and introduced to two more (Durango and the Distrito Federal). The distribution range is the largest of all Goodeid species extending from Hidalgo in the E to Nayarit in the W spanning a distance of about 600km beeline and from Michoacán in the S to Zacatecas in the N, over approximately 350km beeline. It was historically known from the lower sections of the Upper (about Maravatio) and from the Middle Río Lerma basin, there including all affluents, especially the bigger rivers: ríos Laja, Guanajuato and Turbio, from the Río Angulo drainage including the Lago Zacapú, from the Lower Río Lerma drainage including the Río Duero and other smaller affluents, from the ríos Verde (Jalisco, not San Luis Potosí), Juchipila and Bolaños (Río Grande de Santiago affluents) drainages, and from the Upper Río Grande de Santiago/ Laguna Chapala drainage. Furthermore it is known from the Upper Río Ameca drainage, the endorheic lagunas San Marcos, de Sayula, de Zapotlán, Zacoalcos and Atotonilco, from headwaters of the Río Ayuquila, Río Armería drainage (most likely introduced) and from headwaters of the ríos Santa María and Moctezuma, Río Pánuco drainage, including the endorheic Río Venados (Río Metztitlán) drainage in Hidalgo. Additionally the species occurs in the endorheic Río Grande de Morelia (including the Lago Cuitzeo), Laguna Yuriría, Lago de Pátzcuaro and lagunas de Zirahuén and Magdalena basins. It even reaches the ríos Grande and Turundeo headwaters in the Río Balsas drainage and is one of very few Goodeid species reaching the ríos Huicicila and Mololoa drainages in Nayarit, the last one being an affluent of the Río Grande de Santiago just before it reaches the Pacific. The underlined names are the ones officially used by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía; nevertheless, other ones might be more often in use or better known and therefore prefered. All in all, 25 subpopulations are distinguished:

1. Upper Río Lerma subpopulation (including the Río Cachiví near Maravatio de Ocampo)

2. Middle Río Lerma subpopulation (type subpopulation; including the ríos Laja, Guanajuato, Turbio)

3. Laguna Yuriría subpopulation

4. Río Angulo subpopulation (including the Lago Zacapú)

5. Lower Río Lerma subpopulation (including the Río Duero)

6. Upper Río Grande de Santiago/Laguna Chapala subpopulation

7. Río Verde subpopulation

8. Río Juchipila subpopulation

9. Río Bolaños subpopulation

10. Río Mololoa subpopulation (in Tepic, lower Río Grande de Santiago affluent)

11. Río Huicicila subpopulation (including the Arroyo Compostela)

12. Laguna Magdalena subpopulation

13. Upper Río Ameca subpopulation (including the Río Teuchitlán)

14. Upper Río Ayuquila subpopulation (Río Armería drainage, most likely introduced)

15. Lagunas Atotonilco/San Marcos subpopulation

16. Laguna de Sayula subpopulation

17. Laguna de Zapotlán subpopulation

18. Río Santa María subpopulation

19. Río Moctezuma subpopulation

20. Río Venados (Río Metztitlán) subpopulation

21. Río Grande subpopulation (Cotija)

22. Río Turundeo subpopulation (around Ciudad Hidalgo)

23. Río Gande de Morelia subpopulation (including the Lago Cutzeo and the Presa Cointzio)

24. Lago de Pátzcuaro subpopulation

25. Laguna de Zirahuén subpopulation

 

   ESU ist short for Evolutionarily Significant Unit. Each unit expresses an isolated population with different genetic characteristics within one species. ESU's can be defined by Molecular geneticsMorphology and/or Zoogeography and help in indicating different phylogenetic lineages within a species. The abbreviation for an ESU is composed of three letters of the genus, followed by the first two letters of the species name and an ongoing number in each species.

  Goodea atripinnis is a nightmare for taxonomists. There are so many different types of Goodea, that actually only two ESU's are distinguished, though the number of forms are many. Gooat1 is in use for all the fish west of the Río Pánuco system and Gooat2 for the ones from the Río Pánuco system, that are by some scientists still named Goodea gracilis.

 

  The Upper (deep red), Middle (orange) and Lower (yellow) Río Lerma subbasins, the Laguna Chapala subbasin (green), the Upper- (blue) and Lower (bilious green) Río Grande de Santiago subbasins, the Río Armería (pink), Upper- (purple) and Lower (brown) Río Grande subbasins, the Río Huicilia (black) basin, the ríos Grande de Morelia (old pink) and Turundeo (turquise) subbasins, the Upper- (light blue) and Middle (green-brown) Río Ameca subbasins, the ríos Moctezuma (crimson) and Tampaón (blue-green) subbasins, the ríos Laja (light grey), Verde (dark grey), Juchipila (yellow green) and Bolaños (dark brown) subbasins on a Mexico map:

Goodea atripinnis subbasins

  Distribution of the Blackfin Goodea. Five subsequent detailed maps show the populated sub- and infrabasins. In all the maps, the bold red line encompasses the species' distribution, the thin red lines separate the infrabasins, partly even ESU's. For a more detailed distribution, see the map for the Maximum Extent of Occurence (EOO):

 Goodea atripinnis infrabasins

  Map A - Northern drainages: The northern distribution area of the Blackfin Goodea is dominated by the ríos Bolaños and Juchipila and Río Verde headwaters, all of them affluents of the Upper Río Grande de Santiago. Though not all of the infrabasins have been surveyed, it seems likely, that Goodea atripinnis is distributed in almost all of them. The Río Bolaños is the westernmost of these three rivers. The headwaters of this river are part of the Río Jerez infrabasin (JER), the next section, the Upper Río Bolaños infrabasin (UBO) has got two minor affluents in the north, the Río Huejúcar (HUE) infrabasin and the one dominated by the Presa Tenaxco (TEN). From the south the bigger Río Tlaltenango (TLA) infrabasin merges into the Upper Río Bolaños. The next river section, the Middle Río Bolaños infrabasin (MBO) has got one big source in the north, the Río Mezquitic, split into the Upper (UME) and Lower (LME) Río Mezquitic infrabasins. The Arroyo Carboneras (CAR) infrabasin is the last smaller affluent merging into the Lower Río Bolaños infrabasin (LBO). The smaller Río Juchipila is split into three infrabasins, the Upper (UJU), Middle (MJU) and Lower (LJU) Río Juchipila infrabasins. The Arroyo Palomas infrabasins (PAL) merges into the upper, the Río Calvillo (CAL) and Arroyo Zapoqui (ZQI) infrabasins into the middle section. The Río Mezquital infrabasin (MZQ), flowing into the lower section of the Juchipila river is on Map D. The Río Verde headwaters are in the Río San Pedro (PED) infrabasin. The next section of the river is the Upper Río Verde infrabasin (UVE) with several affluents, namely the ríos Chico (CHO) and Chicalote (CLO), and the arroyos Agostaderoel (AGO), Teocaltiche (TEO) and Morcinique (AMO) infrabasins. All fish belong to the ESU Gooat1.

Goodea atripinnis northern infrabasins

  Map B - Eastern drainages: The distribution in the east is dominated by infrabasins belonging to the Río Pánuco basin. Not all of them might be populated, but were for sure, and some of them are occupied only in borderlands. The stocks there belong to the ESU Gooat2, the former Goodea gracilis. From the Río Tampaón subbasin, it is mainly known from the Upper Río Santa María infrabasin (USM), but reaches in the upper sections the Lower Río Santa María infrabasin (LSM). From the southern Río Moctezuma subbasin, it is known from the ríos Santa Clara (SCL) and San Juán (SJU) infrabasins, but occurs respectively occured also in the affluents of the Río San Juán, the ríos Prieto (PRI) and San Francisco (SFR), and the arroyos Caracol (ACA) and Zarco (AZA) infrabasins. As the species was discovered in the Metztitlán (MTZ) infrabasin, an occurence in the Río Amajac infrabasin (AMA), and therefore also Upper (UMO) and Lower (LMO) Río Moctezuma infrabasins can be inferred, as well as from two affluents of the Upper Río Moctezuma infrabasin, the ríos Chicavasco (CHV) and Alfajayucan (ALF) infrabasins. Other infrabasins of the east belong to either the Upper Río Lerma subbasin, namely the Río El Tigre (TIG), the Arroyo San Andrés (ASA) infrabasin and the one around the Presa Solís (PSO), or to the Middle Río Lerma subbasin. Its easternmost infrabasins are the Upper (ULA), Middle (MLA) and Lower (LLA) Río Laja infrabasins with its affluent, the Río Querétaro infrabasin (QUR). All these infrabasins are home to Gooat1. Other infrabasins occuring here on Map B will be mentioned on Map C.

Goodea atripinnis eastern infrabasins

  Map C - Southtern and Central drainages: To the central and southern sections being populated with Goodea atripinnis belong mainly the subsequent sections of the Río Lerma with its affluents. These are the Upper (MLE-U) and the Lower (MLE-L) sections of the Middle Río Lerma, the northern affluents ríos Temascatio (TEM), Guanajuato (GTO) and Turbio, the last one split into the Upper (UTU), Middle (MTU) and Lower (LTU) Río Turbio infrabasins. Furthermore we find the Río Angulo infrabasin (ANG) and the whole Río Grande de Morelia subbasin with the Lago de Pázucuaro (PAT), Río Grande de Morelia/Lago Cuitzeo (CUI) and Laguna Yuriría (YUR) infrabasins populated. The species occurs also in two adjacent infrabasins of the Río Balsas. These are the Laguna Zirahuén infrabasin (ZIR), Lower Río Grande subbasin, and the Río Tuxpán infrabasin (TPN - not the  same as the one from the Río Coahuayana!), Río Cutzmala subbasin. The Blackfin Goodea is furhermore inhabiting the Lower Río Lerma subbasin with the Lower Río Lerma infrabasin (LLE), the Jamay-Pajacuarán infrabasin (JPA) and two affluents of the Río Lerma, the Río Chico (CHI) infrabasin in the north and the Río Duero infrabasin (DUE) in the south. Within the Upper Río Grande subbasin, the species can be found in the Cotija infrabasin (COT), Río Balsas basin. On this map is also the Lower Río Verde infrabasin (LVE) with its affluents, the ríos San Juan de los Lagos (SJL) and Jalostotitlán (JAL) and arroyos El Salto (AES) and Tepatitlán (TPT) infrabasins. Other infrabasins shown on this map here will be mentioned in the text about the subsequent one. All fish belong to the ESU Gooat1 again.

Goodea atrpinnis southern infrabasins

  Map D - Southtwestern drainages: Within the southwestern drainages we find the ESU Gooat1 again. The distribution encompasses the Laguna Chapala (CHA), the Río Sahuayo (SAH), the endorheic lagunas Atotonilco (ATO), de Sayula (SAY) and Zapotán (ZPT) infrabasins. Furthermore borderlands of the Río Ayuqila infrabasin (AYU), the Upper Río Ameca (UAM-U and UAM-L) infrabasins, the Middle Río Ameca infrabasin (MAM) and one affluent, the Río Tetiteco infrabasin (TET). The species can be found also in the Río Grande de Santiago, starting with its Upper subbasin and infrabasins belonging to it, means the Upper (USA-U) and Lower (USA-L) section of this subbasin, the Laguna Cajititlán (CAJ), the Zapotlán del Rey (ZAP), the Zapotlanejo (ZJO), the ríos Zula (ZUL), Calderón (CAL), Cuitzla (CZT), Tequesquite (TQE) and Arroyo Achichilco (AAC) infrabasins. Here we find also the Río Mezquital infrabasin (MZQ), Río Juchilipa subbasin. The Laguna Magdalena infrabasin (MAG) belongs together with the Arroyo Santo Tomás infrabasin (TOM) to the Lower Río Grande de Santiago subbasin. 

Goodea atripinnis southwestern infrabasins

  Map E - Northwestern drainages: The Lower Río Grande de Santiago infrabasins (LSA-U and LSA-L) with their affluents, the (already mentioned) Arroyo Santo Tomás (TOM), the Río Molola (MOL) and the arroyos Jora Viejo (JOV) and Seco infrabasins (SEC) dominate this last map. One river flowing directly into the Pacific ocean, the Río Huicicila (HUI) is the last known infrabasin being populated with Goodea atripinnis, again with fish from the ESU Gooat1.

Goodea atripinnis northwestern infrabasins

  Maximum Extent of Occurence of Goodea atripinnis:

Maximum EOO of Goodea atripinnis

Status : 

  International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Least Concern

  Conservation status and population trends of Mexican Goodeids (Lyons, 2011): least Concern/declining: "This species has the largest distribution of any goodeid species. Its native range includes the Lerma, upper Santiago (including Lake Chapala), upper Ameca, upper Armería, and upper Balsas river basins on the Pacific slope, the endorheic Lake Zirahuén, Lake Pátzcuaro, and Lake Cuitzeo/Grande de Morelia River basins in central Mexico, and the upper Pánuco River basin on the Atlantic slope. Many years ago it invaded and became established in the endorheic Valley of Mexico, and an introduced population was recently discovered in the upper Mezquital River basin within the range of Characodon near Durango (Michael Tobler, personal communication). Some early authors (e.g., Meek, 1904; Mendoza, 1962) considered the Lake Pátzcuaro population a different species, G. luitpoldii, but recent genetic and morphological analyses indicate that this population is not distinct from G. atripinnis (Doadrio and Domínguez-Dominguez, 2004; Webb et al., 2004; Clyde Barbour, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA, personal communication; Kyle Piller, personal communication). Other authors consider the Pánuco River basin populations a distinct species, G. gracilis (e.g., Doadrio and Dominguez-Domínguez, 2004; Domínguez-Domínguez et al., 2005). Although there are minor genetic and morphological differences between Pánuco River basin populations and other Goodea populations, I do not consider them large enough to warrant recognition of G. gracilis as a separate species.

Goodea atripinnis remains common in many areas and is probably still the most abundant goodeid species overall, but its distribution and abundance have steadily declined over the last 25 years (Lyons et al., 1998; Soto-Galera, 1999; Domínguez-Domínguez et al., 2005b; Mercado-Silva et al., 2006). Historically the species supported commercial fisheries in the larger lakes where it occurred, but in recent years it has been eliminated from Lake Zirahuén, reduced to a small remnant population in Lake Pátzcuaro, and greatly decreased in number in Lake Chapala and Lake Cuitzeo, largely owing to predation by and competition with non-native fish species. Only a handful of populations persist in the upper Pánuco River basin, primarily because of water diversions and groundwater pumping, which have eliminated habitat. Pollution and habitat modifications have devastated populations in many areas of the Lerma and upper Santiago basins."

  NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010: no categoría de riesgo (no category of risk)

Habitat: 

  The habitats are very versatile, including lakes, ponds, streams, springs and outflows. The species goes down to 1.7m, but prefers usually depths of less than 0.5m. The water may be clear, turbid or muddy and currents are none to sometimes moderatly strong. Different substrates like mud, clay, sand, gravel and rocks occur. The vegetation is rarely sparse, typical are green algae plus Chara, water hyacinths, Potamogeton, Lemna and Nasturtium. Rio Grande de Santiago

Los Negritos Río Teuchitlán Manantial La Luz   Lago de Chapala

 

Manantial La Mintzita

Irrigation channel near Ciudad Hidalgo

Pond near Huingo

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring in Quencio

 

  Jesus Maria dam    

Biology: 

  Following Miller, young occur from the end of January to the middle of July, indicating a long reproductive period. On the other hand, Mendoza (1962) found young in the Pátzcuaro lake from June to August, indicating just one brood per year for at least this lake. The capture of young indicates, that the reproduction in the Río Panuco basin is from midwinter to late spring (early February to May or June) and may extend throughout autumn (17mm young taken on November, 23rd). Goodea atripinnis is a prolific fish; a very large female (149mm SL) contained 167(!) embryos ready for birth. These fish generally swim from midwater to bottom, feeding during the day on aufwuchs. It also forms aggregates of stationary fish just off the bottom (Kingston, 1979).

  Female with opened ovary to show the fry:

 Female with opened ovary showing the young

Diet: 

  The gut is elongated (about 230% of the standard length) and convoluted, and the mouth is dorsally oriented. The marginal teeth of premaxillary and dentary are arranged in two rows of bicuspid teeth, followed by a set of small unicuspid teeth. This species is definitely herbivorous, feeding mainly on filamentous green algae and soft water plants, additionally detritus, small Crustaceans and Molluscs. Jordan in his orginial paper described the intestinal canal as "considerably convoluted and filled with mud."

Size: 
The maximum known standard length is about 200mm (Miller et al., 2005).
Colouration: 

  Jordan described the colour of the fish in spirit as "bluish above, sides nearly plain, with a silvery streak along each series of scales. Vertical fins obscurely marked, each of them chiefly black, especially on the distal half." In life, Goodea atripinnis can be differing a lot in colour. Some specimens get uniform light grey when adult or nearly black, others can be greenish with yellow to orange belly. Silvery bodies with yellow fins are common.These can turn into black or grey. Broad lateral bands composed of small dots or blotches are not rare. Some populations are greyish brown, some spotted like a Leopard. So similar this species is in general shape, so different it can be in colouration.

  Hieronimus (1995) distinguishes between three different basal types of colouration: the first type is totally silvery in both sexes without any black fins, the second type greenish-yellow with males with green flanks. The belly may be yellow and females display black unpaired fins when being at ease, whereas the males show yellow fins. The third type displays a strong, dark, lateral band in both sexes with also black unpaired fins in the female gender when feeling comfortable. Following him, all three types may be found at one location with different intermediate stages. Observations in the aquarium give the impression, that even within one specimen these types can change at different conditions.

Sexual Dimorphism: 

 Males and females of the Blackfin Goodea are not easy to distinguish. The safest characteristic is the Splitfin in males, means the for Goodeinae typical mating organ formed by a notch after the first seven shortened rays of the Anal fin. Additionally, male Goodea atripinnis have a slightly bigger Dorsal fin than females. A difference in colouration is usually not visible. 

Goodea atripinnis male

Goodea atripinnis female

Remarks: 

  Due to the large area this species is inhabiting and the many different populations, the relationship of this species led to some confusion, and it still does. This is an attempt to bring some light into the darkness of the Goodea - taxonomy. 

 

  The early years: From Characodon and Xenendum to only Goodea

  In 1887, Tarleton H. Bean got the opportunity to examin the types of Goodea atripinnis from Jordan. In contrary to Jordan, he found villiform teeth behind the incisors and therefore transfered the species into the genus Characodon. Six years later (1894) Franz Steindachner forwarded a letter from Princess Therese of Bavaria to privy councillor Franz Ritter von Hauer, who had the chairmanship of the meeting of the mathematic-scientific class in Vienna in June 1894, where she described more or less with the help of Steindachner (probably he did the description in reality alone) from two females of 13 and 13.6mm, that she obtained from fishermen from the Pátzcuaro lake, a new species of fish. The species was named Characodon luitpoldii in honour of her father, Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria. Two years later (1900) Jordan and John Otterbein Snyder described two species in their newly erected genus, Xenendum, with bicuspid teeth instead of tricuspid like in Goodea, namely Xenendum caliente and xaliscone. The first species was described after a male that Snyder collected on January the 9th, 1899, in the Río Verde near the town of Aguascalientes (Cat.No. LSJrUM-6147). The Holotype of the second species is a female, collected also by Snyder on December the 26th, 1898, in the Chapala lake near Ocotlán (Cat. No. LSJrUM-6148). Consequently Jordan sticked to Goodea atripinnis as he still believed in the tricuspid teeth he thought he had seen in the collection from Guanajuato. In the same year, he and Barton Evermann, transfered Characodon luitpoldii into the genus Xenendum. Already in 1902, so just two years later, Seth Eigene Meek asked T. H. Bean to check Jordans types again and Bean discovered the mistake with tricuspid teeth in Jordans type material of Goodea atripinnis. Meeks reaction was to confirm this species, to transfer luitpoldii into Goodea and synonymize Xenendum xaliscone with it. Furthermore he accepted at the beginning Xenendum caliente as Goodea caliente, but synonymized this species with atripinnis already in the same year, reducing the number of species in Goodea to two, atripinnis and luitpoldii. Only five years later (1907), Charles Tate Regan synonymized luipoldii with atripinnis, but erected Goodea calientis again, this time the epithet adapted in the correct way.

Goodea taxonomy first part

  The next step: Hubbs & Turner versus Fernando de Buen 

  Despite of Hubbs' description of Goodea captiva (1924) after some specimens from Jesus Maria, Río Pánuco drainage, that was transfered into the new genus Xenoophorus by Hubbs and Turner (in Turner, 1937), he described again with Turner in 1939 a "true" Goodea from the Pánuco drainage: Goodea gracilis. The Holotype is an adult female of 39mm standard length collected by Gordon, Whetzel and Ross on March the 21st, 1932, in the Río Santa Maria at Santa Maria del Río in San Luis Potosí (Cat. No. UMMZ-108552). Together with this female were taken three male Paratypes of 34 to 43mm. Fernando de Buen y Lozano was not satisfied with lumping all these different forms of Goodea. On the other hand, he found the differences not strong enough to justify species rank. His solution was to accept the four forms Jordan treated as valid (Goodea atripinnis, Xenendum caliente, luipoldii and xaliscone) as subspecies of Goodea atripinnis. Furthermore he described after three female fish of 85 to 93mm that his son collected in the Río Grande de Morelia, probably in summer 1941, a fifth subspecies: Goodea atripinnis martini. A single specimen in bad condition, that Mario del Torre collected in the Zirahuén lake in August 1934, made him think of a sixth subspecies, but the material was too poor. As Goodea gracilis was not within his area of investigation, he didn't have a bearing on this species. So with the 1950's, depending on the scientists doctrine, either three species were accepted (atripinnis, gracilis and luitpoldii) or two (atripinnis, gracilis) with several subspecies. 

 Goodea taxonomy part two

   The recent years: The new population of Hidalgo and the end of Goodea gracilis

   Morphometric and phylogenetic results by the end of the 1990`s and beginning Millenium made clear, that Goodea luitpoldii couldn't be held any longer as distinct species, and there was also no possibility to distinguish any subspecies. Too many transitions between the many different forms made it almost impossible to set limits to species. Finally, as nobody went into detail with Goodea gracilis, two species (atripinnis, gracilis) without subspecies were widely accepted. In 2010 then, few specimens of the genus Goodea were found in the endorheic Río Metztitlán valley, federal state of Hidalgo. Comparing measures from these few individuals show intermediate results between the two accepted species gracilis and atripinnis, so the final position of this population wasn't sure at all. However, following distribution patterns, it should rather belong to Goodea gracilis. Recent phylogenetic results (2012) revealed, that Goodea gracilis is phylogenetically nested within atripinnis, so there is no possibility to separate these two species. The final decision until better phylogenetic methods will be available is to summarize all Goodea forms within the single species Goodea atripinnis

Husbandry: 

  Looking on the biotopes of Goodea atripinnis, they suggest the species may prefer a habitat with none to moderate or slightly swift current, structured with rocks, roots and small areas with dense submerse vegetation. Intraspecific aggession can be rarely observed, the level of aggression between the fish is almost zero. Fry is usually not eaten, so it is easy to get fast a big and flock breeding colony. 

  The recommended tank size is depending on the end size of the population and should therefore be between at least 100 up to 250 liters, bigger tanks with a generous base and little height (25cm are enough) are better for sure. A bit with roots and/or rocks structured tanks with few patches of dense submerse vegetation in the corners and bigger free areas to swim seem to do best with this species. The current should be moderate. 

  In the wild, adults of this species feed mainly from algae and aufwuchs, so much light to help algae grow and feeding with vegetables and additionally fiber-rich middle sized food from animalistic sources will be best for this fish. In aquarium, it feeds very well from flake food, granulate and tablets, additionally freeze dried food like Brine Shrimps is eaten greedy. The species is anything else but shy.   

  Concerning water quality, this species is in need of bigger water changes (60-80% every week) like most of the Goodeids. Therefore an automatic water changing system can be helpful. Otherwise, in combination with constant temperatures higher than 25°C, fish may get sick, lose resistance against diseases and age too fast. So for keeping the strain healthy and strong, and for regulating the number of fry, give the fish a rest during winter time with temperatures lower than 20°C for 2 or 3 months so they stop producing fry. In spring, when the temperature slowly increases, they will start spawning at 20 or 21°C and won't stop until it gets colder again or when it gets too warm (25°C).

  This species does very well when is kept in the open from spring to fall, starting when the water temperature by day exceeds 17°C and cold periods are no longer expected. Bring them out in the early afternoon, the time of the day with the highest water temperature. During the warm summer, reproduction will stop and may occur again in fall. Bring the fish in before the water temperature deceeds 17°C by day and keep them cool for the first days, then slowly raise the temperature but try to stay below 20°C over the winter time.